I-boom yokugqibela kwi-teknoloji entsha ye-ishishini lobheduyenzeka kumashumi amabini eminyaka okuqala kule nkulungwane, xa imigodi yemingxuma evulekileyo, ukugxininiswa kweflotation, kunye nesinyibilikisi esibuyisela umva satshintshwa ukuba sibe yiporphyry ores yobhedu.

Ngaphandle kwe-leaching-solvent extrac tion-electrowinning, iindlela ezisisiseko zekopi ngemveliso nganye ziye zahlala zingatshintshi iminyaka engama-65.Ngaphezu koko, imigodi emithandathu yavulwa phakathi kuka-1900 no-1920 isephakathi kwabavelisi abakhulu bobhedu eUnited States namhlanje.

Endaweni yokutsibela phambili okukhulu, ukwenziwa kwezinto ezintsha kushishino lobhedu kule minyaka ingama-65 idlulileyo kuye kwabandakanya kakhulu utshintsho oluye lwavumela iinkampani ukuba zisebenzise i-ores yodidi oluphantsi kwaye ziqhubeke zinciphisa iindleko zemveliso.Uqoqosho lwesikali lube lokwenene

ifakwe kuzo zonke izigaba zemveliso yobhedu.Zombini i-machine kunye nemveliso yabantu inyuke kakhulu.

Esi sahluko sichaza ngokufutshane iteknoloji yokuvelisa ubhedu, ukusuka ekuhloleni, ngokusebenzisa imigodi kunye nokugaya, ukunyibilika kunye nokucocwa okanye ukutsalwa kwe-solvent kunye ne-electrowinning.Isahluko siqala ngesishwankathelo sembali yamapolisa ngophuhliso lwetekhnoloji.Emva koko, nganye

Inqanaba lemveliso yobhedu, iphonononga imeko-bume yerenti yangoku, ichonge inkqubela phambili yetekhnoloji yamva nje, iphonononga inkqubela phambili enokwenzeka yexesha elizayo kunye neemfuno zophando kunye nophuhliso, kwaye ixoxa ngokubaluleka kwenkqubela phambili eyongezelelweyo kukhuphiswano lweshishini lase-US.Umfanekiso 6-1

ibonisa i-flow-sheets ye-pyrometallurgical' kunye ne-hydrometallurgical

Imveliso ye-2 yobhedu.Iitheyibhile 6-1 kunye ne-6-2 zibonelela ngezishwankathelo ze-capsule zezi nkqubo.

1 I-PyrometaIIurgy KUKUKHIWA kwe-metaI kwintsimbi ekrwada kunye neeteyiti ezigxininise kusetyenziswa ukusabela kweekhemikhali kumaqondo obushushu aphezulu.

2 I-Hydrometallurgy kukubuyisela i-metaIs kwi-ores kusetyenziswa izisombululo ezisekelwe emanzini.

Kwangonyaka wama-6000 BC, ubhedu lwemveli-intsimbi esulungekileyo-yafunyanwa njengamatye abomvu kwindawo yaseMed ye-terranean kwaye yabethelwa kwizixhobo, izixhobo kunye nezixhobo.Malunga nowama 5000 BC, amagcisa afumanisa ukuba ubushushu benza ikopolo ikwazi ukusebenza ngakumbi.Ukuchithwa kunye nokunyibilikiswa kobhedu kwaqala malunga ne-4000-3500 BC (jonga umfanekiso 6-2).Malunga nowama-2500 BC, ubhedu lwaludityaniswe netoti ukwenza ubhedu—ingxubevange eyayivumela izixhobo ezomeleleyo nezixhobo.Ubhedu, i-alloy yobhedu kunye ne-zinc, mhlawumbi ayizange iphuhliswe kude kube ngu-300 AD

Ubhedu lwembiwa okokuqala (ngokuchaseneyo nokufunyanwa emhlabeni) kwiNtlambo yaseTimna kwaSirayeli—indawo eyinkangala ekukholelwa ukuba yayiyindawo yeMigodi kaKumkani uSolo mon (jonga umfanekiso 6-3).AmaFenike kunye namaRemans, awayesebenza imigodi emikhulu eSipro nakwingingqi yaseRio Tinto kumazantsi eSpeyin, enze inkqubela phambili yokuhlola ubhedu kunye neendlela zokwembiwa kwemigodi.Ngokomzekelo, amaRoma afumana imizimba yentsimbi ekrwada emalunga ne-100 kwisithili sobhedu saseRio Tinto.Iingcali zegeologists zanamhlanje zifumene iidiphozithi ezimbalwa ezongezelelweyo, kwaye phantse yonke imveliso yangoku yeRio Tinto isuka kwintsimbi ekrwada eyafunyanwa kuqala yiRemans.

3 E-Rio Tinto, iiRemans zomba umntla, i-idized, inxalenye yentsimbi ekrwada zaze zaqokelela imixube yobhedu ye-Iaden eveliswa ngamanzi kancinane ehla ngentsimbi ekrwada ye-suIfide.Xa amaMoor athimba le nxalenye yeSpeyin ngexesha lamaXesha Aphakathi, i-oxide ores yayisele iphelelwe ngamandla.Ukufunda kumava aseRoma kunye ne-seepage, amaMoor aphuhlisa imingxuma evulekileyo, i-heap leaching, kunye ne-iron precipitation tech niques eyaqhubeka isetyenziswa. eRio Tinto ukuya kwinkulungwane yama-20.

EBritani, ubhedu kunye netoti zazisetyenzwa kudonga lweCorn kwaye kwarhweba namaFenike kwangowe-1500 BC IRemans yazisa iindlela eziphuculweyo zentsimbi eBritani.


Ixesha lokuposa: Jun-21-2023